Who Received The Benefits?

From February 2020 to June 2021, a total of nine ESPs were rolled out. Some programmes were designed for everyone, while some were targeted at specific groups of people. IDEAS Pantau Laksana Dataset classifies all programmes across the 9 packages according to 5 groups:



Beneficiaries are business entities or entrepreneurs

RM 162.48 billion

2.4 million business owners were eligible for programmes like:
  • DanaJamin
  • Wage Subsidy Program (Program Subsidi Upah)
  • Loan deferral via KWSP Program Khidmat Rakyat
Most of the programmes were for all sectors; the top three business sectors according to the allocated funds are: Property and construction (RM8.21 billion), tourism and public transport (RM3.63 billion), and agriculture (RM2.51 billion).
Individuals/ Households

Individuals/ Households

Beneficiaries are of a wider scope of distribution rather than targeted distribution to vulnerable groups

RM 106.94 billion

Out of the RM 107 billion announced, more than RM 100 billion was allocated for all citizens without targeting a specific group of people among households or individuals, for example:
  • EPF withdrawals
  • Option for reduction in EPF contribution
  • Subsidies for essential items
Some programmes were specially targeted at a specific demographic such as women, youth, university students, and parents. Such programmes included PTPTN loan moratorium, e-Belia (a programme providing Malaysian students between 18 to 20 years old with RM 150 e-wallet credits), and BSN Microcredit Programme for women.
Vulnerable Groups

Vulnerable Groups

Beneficiaries are among the groups of self-employed workers, women, youth, flood victims, B40 households, persons with disabilities (OKU), or flood victims

RM 30.03 billion

Among programmes targeted specifically for vulnerable groups are Bantuan Prihatin Nasional, one-off assistance for OKUs or single mothers, food basket assistance administered by Members of Parliament, etc.

Most of the beneficiaries of these programmes were also eligible for the programmes for Individuals/Households.

*In our dataset, assistance for women entrepreneurs and youth were not counted as vulnerable groups.
Frontliners/ Public Service

Frontliners/ Public Service

Beneficiaries are medical, enforcement, defence personnel, or the Ministry of Health

RM 10.95 billion

Most of the allocation was for Covid-19 vaccination, procurement of necessary healthcare supplies, and cash allowances for frontliners.


Beneficiaries cannot be disaggregated between businesses and individuals or households as consumers (electricity bill discounts and loan moratorium), or beneficiaries of general stimulus measures that impact all citizens such as 5G infrastructure acceleration

RM 215.93 billion

RM 210 billion out of the total value of the stimulus packages was in the form of loan moratoriums, i.e., the estimated total amount of loans that would be approved for moratoriums. Other programmes include:
  • Upgrade of communications with optic fibre
  • Electricity bill subsidy
  • Public-private partnership (PPP) for vaccination programmes

What do you think?

Some questions to think about:

  1. Was this a fair allocation that reflects the reality and needs of the country? 
  2. Is there a better way to classify these beneficiaries across all the packages? 
  3. Should medium- to long-term economic recovery programmes (e.g. the allocation for small-scale government projects for G1 to G4 contractors) be included in economic stimulus packages that bypass parliamentary oversight? 
  4. What should the government learn from this experience in case of similar situations in the future? 

Explore more about the stimulus packages, or do your own analysis with our Pantau Laksana dataset!

Download The Pantau Laksana Dataset

Download The Pantau Belanjawan Dataset